Allergy, Epidemiology, Causes and Pathogenesis, Immunology

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Allergy

A continues irritation reaction to the body or body parts initiated by certain substances is called allergy. Allergy is disorder of immune system of an individual, when body fails to defend itself from certain specific substances called as allergens. There are number of allergens as pollen, dust, certain food or food products, meld, medication etc., trigger allergic reaction to concern individual.

Nearly about 60% of people in the world are sensitive towards these allergens and suffering from allergy. In general our immune system act as defence system and is responsible for protecting our body from foreign particles as germs, moulds etc. from harming our body. But in allergic people the defence system responds to false alarm and can be identifies by symptoms as sneezing, dripping of nose, rashes on body, and swelling.

Sometime these reactions are life threatening as anaphylaxis and should be considered as emergency. Clinically allergy can be diagnosed by skin and blood test.Development of hypersensitive reaction in once body due to exposure to allergen differentiate healthy person with infected one. The level of HR response is not definable physically but cab be defied by its nature and energy level.

Epidemiology: The allergic problem is not confined to certain rather it can infect any age group from new borne to old age person. The disease is a manifestation of immune system reaction to allergens as gluten, pollen etc. Depending upon entry of allergen produces different types of symptoms and infects different body parts. Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic dermatitis, Drug allergy, food allergy, Allergic conjunctivitis etc is certain allergies prevailing in population. One's understanding about epidemiology of problem can help to take prevention and treatment at right time.

1. Allergy Rhinitis: This is the common problem of children affecting 15-2015 children in the world. The disease is responsible for inflammation in nasal and non-nasal parts of children respiratory system. Inflammation causes fatigueless and hindrance in hindered cognitive to infected child. Inheritance of disease factor through gene, infection of upper respiratory track, consumption of antibiotic at initial years of birth, exposure to dust and grassy environment are responsible for disease to infect children.

2. Chronic Urticaria: It is the type of allergy of skin caused by denaturation of mast cells of cuticular layer or release of histamine and is a general type of disorder among the population over the world.Certain food stuffs, Mosquito bites, drugs, psychological conditions of individual are the factors play role to cause disease.

3. Eczema: This is again atopic dermatitis disease of childhood in its chronic form usually targeting to children below 10 years of their age. The disease is very complex caused by several factors as including genetic and environmental. Gene play major role in developing disease to kids.

4. Drug allergy: The type of allergy is caused by misbalance of immune system caused by impact of certain types of drugs in affected person. Penicillin is the most common antibiotic drug identified to initiate drug allergy followed by Non-steroidal drugs induces hypersensitive reaction.

5. Food allergy: This is the type of allergy now a days commonly found within the folk, disease produces inflammatory reactions by consumption of certain food stuffs which are not causing any reaction to normal person. The disease is IgE mediated response and inheritable from infected parents to offspring's. The disease produces symptoms as itchy eyes, watery nose, dry throat and rashes. Patient also faces difficulty in breathing and sometimes fatal anaphylaxis.

Causes and Pathogenesis: our body is blessed by immune system which fights with foreign particles and protect our body from the harm caused by these alien particles. The first defence mechanism against these foreign particles is provided by skin. The defence system can recognize good and bad cells and response accordingly. But in few cases when system fails to perform its task and produces certain reactions called as Allergy.

Pathogenesis refers to the sequence of event leading to cause the potential disease. One of the major life threatening allergy type Asthma caused by limitation of airflow caused by Bronchoconstriction, Airway edema, Airway hyper responsiveness and airway remodelling results in the inflammation of airflow pathway of infected individual. Inflammation play a key role in development of asthmainvolves in the interaction of body cells (lymphocytes, mast mucus cells, Neutrophylls, dendrites, eosinophils, epithelial cells) and mediators (chemokines, cytokines, Nitric oxides, Cysteinyl-leukotrienes) with the airways leads to pathophysiological characters of the disease.

When the sensitive cells of body come in contact with allergens specific, IgE in cells binds to this allergens leading to the activation of mast cells and basophils causing the release of certain chemicals called mediators within the blood stream or tissue. This mediator after released in blood produces symptoms as swelling, itching etc.

Prevention and Management: If a person is suffering from allergy there is foremost need for understanding the cause of once own allergic problem and all the allergen related to his allergy. And avoiding contact with allergen associated with allergy will prevent any situation to be chronic. Treatment of the disease through appropriate medicines can help the needy to sustain his life with disease. Example for asthma treatment generally corticosteroids are recommended and to be taken via inhalation. Corticosteroids help to supress inflammatory pathways and induction of bronchodilation.

1. Food allergy: One should take preventive approach towards his disease by avoiding food items causing allergy. If in any case food containing allergen is consumed or contacted and the allergic reaction starts immediately take over the counter (OTC) drugs to relive the symptoms.

2. Drug allergy: People having allergy from some specific drugs should consult their doctors for prescribing the alternative drugs. To cure serious reaction doctor must prescribe Antihistamines, corticosteroids, or epinephrine.

Future development: Treatment for all type of allergies will differ from each other on the basis of mode of attack and the body part affected. Studies and researches are ongoing to develop medicines those reduce the sensitivity of body cells to these allergens and increase tolerance capacity.

Medical science is focusing on understanding the epidemiology of specific allergy in relation to environment, gene to gene interaction, tissue specificity and other factors which contribute to allergic reaction. Focusing of increase in tolerance capacity for allergens will be safest and effective for allergen specific reactions.

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