Basic concepts of Nuclear physics
Before seeing about nuclear physics lets first understand what physics in nutshell. Physics is a field of science which speaks how things happen. Now looking into the second part of the topic that is nucleus. What is a nucleus? In general nucleus is the most important part of an object, forming the brain of the object. In atom, nucleus is the major part which is composed of the charged particles called nucleon- made of proton and neutron.
Hence nuclear physics is the study of atomic nuclei and its contents, and their bonding and interaction.
The basic concept of this field includes:
Structure of an atom:
All matter in the earth is made up of atoms. This atom is in turn made up of a nucleus and electron. The nucleus is located at center and electrons revolving around the nucleus. The components of nuclei are protons, which have a positive charge, and neutrons, which neutral in nature. These proton and neutron are together called as nucleon. Electrons are negatively charged electrical particles with magnitude that of equal to a proton.
There few elements in which the nuclei present in its atom are unstable. Such nuclei are radioactive, as they emit energy and particles, collectively called "radiation." Every element has at least some isotopes that are radioactive
Nuclei are tightly hold together by the force called nuclear force the amount of energy required by the nucleus to break and separate into protons and neutrons is called as the binding energy. For each and every proton and neutron added to a nucleus, this energy increases by several mega electron-volts
When a small amount of the mass of nucleus is converted into energy the nuclear energy is generated. This small energy his very huge which is equivalent to many million metric tons of coal. Atoms like uranium can be broken by bombarding them with neutrons. The resulting fragments are called as fission products, which contain intermediate weight, and mass that is slightly smaller than the original nucleus. The energy produced is the difference.
For the production of atoms like plutonium-239 and uranium-233 in ample for nuclear energy production, they must be produced from materials that are readily available in the environment. Plutonium-239 is manufactured from the absorption of a neutron by uranium-238 whereas uranium-233 is produced by neutron absorption in thorium-232. The elements obtain are called fertile materials.
Importance of Nuclear Physics Assignments
Studies of the nucleus are extending our understanding of the basic laws of nature and how the universe evolved. Much of nuclear physics research involves exploring the forces and particles characterizing everyday matter, as well as more exotic phenomena found in stars and the early universe.
Nuclear physics has a vital role in our lives: Finding smoke in our homes, cancer diagnosis and treatment, and Examining the cargo for duplicates and illegal product are just some of the example of nuclear physics and it's the techniques that are employed for safety, health, and security. Basic research in this field has paved way for the development and advancement of medicines, materials, energy, security etc.
The direct applications of nuclear physics are seen in the fields of human health, the environment, the industrial processes, energy manufacturing, the space study, and at last about the national security. Nuclear physics techniques have been playing an expert role in medical diagnostics and cancer therapy. In addition, diseases like Alzheimer's disease, hyperthyroidism, coronary artery disease, localize tumors, are also diagnosed using the procedures and principles of nuclear physics and diagnose pulmonary emboli. Nuclear physics along with nuclear medicines have led to the advance in the medical field through accelerators, detectors, understanding the radiation-matter interaction, and developing difficult statistical algorithms for identifying relevant data. Due to inventions of, new nuclear imaging technologies, it has increased the effectiveness of health care and helped the doctors to diagnose different types of disease like cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders in their early stages. These procedure are very advantages and highly needful because it is act as an alternate to surgery or biopsy. The normal scanning and imagining machines identifies only the structure, whereas nuclear medicine provides information about the function and structure of virtually all the major organ system. Apart from this due to the involvement of nuclear physics in radioisotope production, many short lived such isotopes are produced and used for target based treatment in which only the affected the part is treated without causing any damage to the neighboring organs of the body.
In industry the nuclear physics techniques are employed. The Rutherford back scattering technique are used to the minute yet important impurities of the semiconductor materials. The nuclear physics also helps in the production of large amount of energy with help of minute raw material with less loss to the environment. The accelerators developed by these principles are used in the defense field for the safety purpose. Apart from this the nuclear reactors, bombs and nuclear energy are highly able to be produced through the principle and procedure of nuclear physics. Hence the above illustrations highly make us to know the importance of the nuclear physics in today's life.
Tips to solve problem under Nuclear Physics:
- To study any subject mastery over the concepts present in it is a vital important. Without understanding the basic concept no further study will help.
- Never ignore or get hesitated towards the problem side of the subject as these are the most important aspects of the study. Each and every calculation must be solved individually with proper guidance.
- Concepts like nuclear reaction, nuclear fission and fusion appears same but they are not as each concept differs from one another. These variations must be clearly understood.
- A timely and proper revision is highly essential.
- The subjects also includes large amount of data which needs to be memorized apart from understanding too.
- Theory and experiment, both should be given equal importance.
- Always try to have an online or offline guide for doubt clearance.
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